I don’t claim to be an expert on caste systems in general or Hindu caste systems in particular but here are my thoughts on this
In ancient India there were 4 castes , the main objective of the caste system in India was division of labor
These 4 castes were
1) Brahmin: This class of people were responsible for Knowledge pursuits and to unravel the mysteries of surrounding nature.
2) Kshatriya: This class of people was responsible for doing administrative works and to protect their society.
3) Vaishya: This class was responsible for Trading and business / agriculture necessities of the system.
4) Shudra: This class was responsible for carrying out service oriented tasks of the society.
The caste system was termed as Varna system in ancient India. This was created along the same lines as four life stages were designed in ancient India 1) Brahamcharya 2) Grihasth 3) Vanprasth 4) Sanyas
So you see caste system is nothing more than a system designed to ensure the well functioning of the system.
and Swami Vivekananda has said this absolutely happen all the time in this world, we humans are a social animal anywhere we go, we form groups for like minded people , or a group of people who share some hobbies etc. so we do this all the time , however
where it got out of hand and totally threw out the intent of varna/caste system when
a) People belonging to a particular caste system began to think that they are superior because of their class. I don’t know when it happened , probably it happened only in british colonism phase or it may have happened before that but one thing is quite certain that if british colonism have not started it then it definitely encouraged and made it a wide spread phenomenon by associating awards etc. to a certain class of system.
b) Once people started to feel that they are superior , they tried to preserve their superiority by restricting other people to intermingle across responsibilities and founding the hypothesis that caste is an attribute of birth. Once this false hypothesis is formed , it’s enforcement was ensured by various corrupt and oppressive means.
I believe more than ever it is now possible and already happening that we throw out these ill conceived notions and everyone does whatever is best to their abilities and interest rather than becoming a believer in wrong aspects of caste system. we will have caste system for sure but let’s not practice the fallacies of it anymore.